Khios was colonized by Ionians but has been occupied by the Persians, part of the Delian League and the Byzantine Empire, before passing through the possession of the Latin Empire|Latin emperors of Constantinople, the Genoa|Genoese, the Ottoman Turks.
During the Turkish occupation, there was a massacre of the islanders after a rebellion in 1822, depicted by Eugine Delacroix in his famous artwork at The Louvre. Khios rejoined the rest of independent Greece after the First Balkan War (1912).
The Turkish massacre of 1822, which annihilated 1/4 of the 30,000 inhabitants of the island, decimated the Mastichohoria, the mastic growing villages in the south of the island. It triggered enormous public outrage in Western Europe, as can be seen in the art of Delacroix, and the writing of George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron|Lord Byron.