Arnhem city (1994 pop. 133,670), capital of Gelderland prov., E Netherlands, a port on the Lower Rhine. It is an industrial, transportation, and tourist center. Textiles, electrical equipment, metal goods, and ships are manufactured. First mentioned in the 9th cent., Arnhem was long the residence of the dukes of Gelderland. During World War II British airborne troops suffered (Sept., 1944) a serious defeat there (see also Eindhoven and Nijmegen). Nearby Arnhem is the renowned museum of modern art.